In obstetrics, even seemingly low-risk pregnancy can suddenly take a turn for the worse during labor and in the post-partum period. While most pregnancies are uneventful, a small percentage—about eight percent—of pregnancies can involve complications, warranting immediate intervention by specialist like Best Gynecologist in Islamabad or it can harm the mother and the baby.
Read on to know more about unexpected complications during pregnancy and who is at risk of them:
While almost all pregnant women have some form of morning sickness, those with hyperemesis gravidarum have excessively high nausea and vomiting. This condition not only makes the pregnancy difficult, but also results in loss of appetite and weight.
The mother is also at risk of dehydration, warranting intravenous fluids and hospital stays. There is nothing that prevents hyperemesis, and there is no telling who is at risk for it. The most important thing during hyperemesis is to get regular prenatal care and to take vitamins to ensure the baby is getting enough nutrients. Hyperemesis abates after delivery with no lasting damage to the mother or the baby.
The placenta is the organ that provides the baby with blood and nutrition during the pregnancy. It normally attaches to the upper part of the uterus; however, if it attaches to the lower part of the uterus, partially covering the cervix, the condition is called placenta previa. This condition puts the mother at risk of vaginal bleeding during the pregnancy. At risk women include those with previous history of placenta previa, fibroids or c-section. Painless vaginal bleeding is the commonest symptom of placenta previa.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
This is the type of diabetes that occurs only in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed after the oral glucose tolerance test performed between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Those with high BMI, or previous history of GDM are at higher risk. For women diagnosed with GDM, exercise and healthy diet are recommended. For mothers with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin are given to maintain the blood glucose. Uncontrolled GDM puts the baby at risk of growing larger than normal—known as macrosomia—making delivery difficult.
Preeclampsia is characterized by loss of protein in the urine and very high blood pressure. Preeclampsia is more common in the second trimester, and predisposes the patient to eclampsia, whereby woman undergoes seizures and malignant hypertension. Preeclampsia management includes bringing the blood pressure down, preventing seizures and delivering the baby. If it is safe, the healthcare provider prefers to deliver the baby.
Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy during the first trimester or first 20 weeks of pregnancy. About 20 percent of all healthy pregnant women have a miscarriage as per the statistics from American Pregnancy Association (APA). Miscarriages are common even before the pregnancy shows symptoms and the mother is aware of being pregnant.
Loss of pregnancy after 20 weeks is called stillbirth. The risks of stillbirth include: infections, history of chronic disorders in the mother and placental problems.
Going into labor before 37 weeks is known as preterm labor. Preterm labor can involve incomplete maturation of the lungs of the baby, which is why the healthcare provider uses drugs called tocolytics to stop the labor and recommend bed rest to the mother. During this time, steroids are often prescribed for fetal lung maturation.
Breech position is when the baby is presenting with the feet at the cervix rather than the head. This position can make vaginal delivery difficult. Most Best Gynecologist in Lahore try to change the position of the baby before delivery if diagnosed early, or recommend c-section to prevent fetal distress.